Full Length Research Paper

Human Rights Violations against the Low Caste People in Travancore (1729 – 1949) and Dalits and Tribals in Modern India (1947 – Till Date)

J. Cyril Kanmony

Article Number - 61D3093009F1D  | Vol. 3(1), pp. 1-11, January 2022  | 
 Received: 2 May 2021 |  Accepted: 16 August 2021  |   Published: 31 January 2022

Copyright © 2024 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.


Caste-based human rights violations are unique in India though there are race-based violations in some parts of the globe. As the whole world is against such violations, a number of Covenants, Conventions and Declarations were adopted both at the global level and at the national level to protect human rights. Even then in India, there are numerous incidents of caste-based rights violations. The low caste people, particularly Dalits and Tribals, are politically powerless, socially untouchable, culturally inferior, ritually unclean, educationally unequal and economically backward.  In many rural areas they are not allowed to acquire knowledge, own property, come near the high caste people, draw water from even common wells, take bath in ponds used by the high caste people, wear foot-wear and walk along the streets where the high caste people live as it was happening long back in India and in Travancore in particular. In the erstwhile Princely State of Travancore, the society stood fragmented into many caste- or religion-based subdivisions. The low caste people’s social conditions were highly deplorable in those days. There was a belief that the low caste people were born to serve the caste Hindus. There were so many restrictions even in worshiping Gods. In temples managed by the government and high caste Hindus, entry was prohibited to the low caste people.  Though they were poor, a number of taxes were imposed on them. They served the high caste people without any payment. The low caste ladies were sexually abused and ill-treated. They were not allowed to wear cloth to cover the upper portion of their bodies. They are treated as outcastes. A poor person is more likely to be a Dalit or a Tribal than a non-SC/ST. To them jobs other than scavenging, sweeping and tanning are not available or denied. They are still educationally backward. In many temples, they are not allowed to go near even the outer side. Even the present President of India, Ramnath Govind, was not allowed to enter a Hindu temple in Rajasthan as he belongs to a low caste. The number of crimes committed against them is unabated. Even in the modern era their women are eve-teased, sexually assaulted, molested, raped and sometimes gang raped. Right violations have much adverse impact on the economy as well as on the victims. Hence steps should be taken to empower and include them in the process of development.  Otherwise there is no possibility for an inclusive growth


Keywords: Dalits, Tribal, Human rights, Caste Hindus, Low caste people, Subhuman, Jenmies.




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J. Cyril Kanmony

PG & Research Centre, Dept. of Economics, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil – 629003, Kanniyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. Email: [email protected]



How to Cite this Article

Kanmony, J. C. (2022). Human Rights Violations against the Low Caste People in Travancore (1729 – 1949) and Dalits and Tribals in Modern India (1947 – Till Date). Journal of Economics, Business Management and Administration, 3(1), 1-11.



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Abbreviation: J. Econ. Bus. Manage. Admin.
ISSN: 2971-7736 (Online)
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J. Cyril Kanmony